Coffee plants thought to have come from the continent of Africa, to be exact is the State of Ethiopia. In the 9th century, a young man named Kaldi inadvertently eating raw seeds obtained from shrubs. Kaldi felt a remarkable effect after eating the seeds, and then he tells it to the surrounding residents and spread to various regions. The seeds that he ate was raw coffee beans or often abbreviated to "bean". In addition to coffee bean, other names are qawah, café, buni, mbuni, koffie, akeita, kafe, kava and kafo.
In the 10th century, coffee beans is categorized as main food by some ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Generally, they cook coffee bean together with staple foods, such as meat or fish. When Islamic Countries were in power around 15th century, they did some research on coffee. Based on the research, the coffee was potentially as a medicine and as a drowsiness drug. Hence, Islamic traders continue to trade and spread coffee to the east.
In the 17th century, coffee beans brought to India and planted by some local people. Furthermore, the Dutchman accidentally see a coffee plantation in India and are interested to cultivate them. Starting from the merchants of venezia, coffee beans began to spread across the European continent.
In 1637, the first coffee shop (coffee house) opened in Continental Europe were in the UK. They called it as Penny Universities, a gathering place for business man, bank employees, and other workers. During that era, in the UK there is a group or network for women. The group made the statement that "women also drink coffee". After three months, the number of coffee shops is increasing. Until the 19th century, in English coffeehouses sprung up and evolved into a club (hangout place).
After stagnating in Britain, the coffee shop (coffee house) spread to other European countries, such as Italian, German, and French. One of the favorite people in Paris (France) is visiting the café Procope which has existed since 1689. Various known many people visit this place. Next, coffee became popular all over the world. Even in America, coffee has become a traditional drink for its people. Coffee has become a main menu in the morning, afternoon, and evening. There are terms for coffee community: coffee in the morning is a good time to aroma and taste of coffee.
Coffee History in Indonesia
Coffee plants spread to Indonesia, particularly in Java occurs in year 1700. Initially, the Dutch brought Coffee Arabica plant species to Botanic Garden Amsterdam, the Netherlands. When the Dutch colonial period in Indonesia, coffee cultivation experiments types of Arabica done in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi. The first experiment carried region coffee hut, Jakarta. After growing well there, the coffee was applied in West Java (Bogor, Sukabumi, Banten and East Priangan with Cultuurstelsel (Cultivation System). After spreading to the island of Java, coffee plants spread to several provinces in Sumatra and Sulawesi.
After a while, embossed leaf rust disease (coffee leaf rust) that are found in Sri Lanka in 1869. Leaf rust disease that attacks the Arabica species is caused by the fungus Hemileia Vastarix. Therefore, the Dutch government bring a new kind of coffee, namely Liberika. However, after planted and harvested, productivity types Liberika actually too low. Furthermore, the Dutch government brought Robusta Coffee species derived from the Congo, Africa in the 1900s. This types of coffee is more resistant to leaf rust disease and have better productivity than Liberika Coffee. In the 1920s, the government established the Coffee Plant Research Center on the island of Java whose tasked is to develop and examine the types of Arabica and Robusta Coffee. Along with time and development technology, Robusta and Arabica native who has undergone crossing among varities and produce some hybrids or clones.
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